Documents

Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform markets, European Commission, 2017
This study explores consumer issues in five online peer to peer platform markets, and estimates that 191m citizens across the EU-28 spend EUR 27.9 billion per year on online P2P platforms. Of this total, an estimated EUR 10.61 billion consists of platform revenues and revenues of third parties.
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British Central Arbitration Committee to establish Deliveroo’s riders are self-employed persons.
The British Central Arbitration Committee, the dispute settlement body, has determined that bicycle drivers offering services through the Deliveroo transport platform are independent contractors, not paid workers with labour rights on the platform.
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Judgment of the Labour Court of the UK of 28 October 2016 declaring that the drivers are Uber employees.
In what was one of the first judgments in Europe on the dispute between drivers providing transport services in Uber and the platform itself over whether they are self-employed or salaried workers on the platform, the decision of the British Labour Court determined that they are its workers and therefore deserve labour rights.
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Judgment of the Civil Court of Rome (Italy) of 6 April 2017 prohibiting Uber.
This ruling prohibits Uber because of the unfair competition that the transport platform is making to the taxi sector, following the decision of a court in Milan in May 2015 that ruled in the same way.
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Urban Politics and Governance, McGill University US, Jan 2018 – The High Cost of Short-Term Rentals in New York City
Report from the Urban Politics and Governance research group of McGill University analyzing the last three years (September 2014 - August 2017) of Airbnb in the city of New York. Among the main conclusions, this report establishes that most of the income is from likely illegal listings; that there are more than 4,000 "ghost hotels" with several rooms in a single apartment; that 10% of "main hosts" earned 48% of total income while 80% lower 32%; that Airbnb has removed between 7,000 and 13,500 units of housing conventional rent for families or precisely because of that reduction in the real estate market, has caused the increase in the cost of conventional long-term rental of 1.4% ($ 380 on average).
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European Commission, 2016 – An Economic Policy Perspective on Online Platforms
Analysis from the European Comission - Scientific and Technical Research Reports which provides an overview of the relevant economic research literature on platforms or multi-sided online markets, until 2016. It discusses platforms from a regulatory policy angle, including potential market failures in platforms, the extent of self-regulation and possible regulatory responses through existing competition policy, consumer protection and data protection instruments.
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CJUE Uber’s resolution, Dec 2017 – Uber is a transportation company
The ‘CJUE UBER’s resolution’ from December 2017 was an important judicial decision which clear the situation regarding Uber platform at Spain: it’s an intermediator or a service provider? It points out that the service provided by Uber is not only intermediation but “creates at the same time an offer of urban transport services” (paragraphs 38 et seq): a transport company like any other, but where the main way of acting and attracting clients is digital.
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European Economic and Social Committee, Oct 2017 – European Taxation of the collaborative economy
The EESC is drawing up, upon the request of the Estonian Presidency of the Council of the EU, an exploratory opinion on the topic of "Taxation of the sharing economy – analysing of possible tax policies faced with the growth of the sharing economy". This opinion is exploring how the new models of business, work, and consumption in the sharing economy can be taxed appropriately. Within its wider work on fair taxation the EESC considers proposals for appropriate taxation of the digital economy vitally important for the civil society at large.
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Ride On! Mobility Business Models for the Sharing Economy
The public perception of shared goods has changed substantially in the past few years. While co-owning properties has been widely accepted for a while (e.g., timeshares), the notion of sharing bikes, cars, or even rides on an on-demand basis is just now starting to gain widespread popularity. The emerging “sharing economy” is particularly interesting in the context of cities that struggle with population growth and increasing density. While sharing vehicles promises to reduce inner-city traffic, congestion, and pollution problems, the associated business models are not without problems themselves. Using agency theory, in this article we discuss existing shared mobility business models in an effort to unveil the optimal relationship between service providers (agents) and the local governments (principals) to achieve the common objective of sustainable mobility. Our findings show private or public models are fraught with conflicts, and point to a merit model as the most promising alignment of the strengths of agents and principals.
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